Wednesday, January 27, 2021
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Spotting and Cramping

Are you wondering if you might be pregnant? The only way to know for sure is by taking a pregnancy test.

But there are early symptoms of pregnancy that may point to the possibility. Here’s what to look for.

Do All Women Get Early Symptoms of Pregnancy?

Every woman is different. So are their experiences of pregnancy. Not every woman has the same symptoms or even the same symptoms from one pregnancy to the next.

Also, because the early symptoms of pregnancy often mimic the symptoms you might experience right before and during menstruation, you may not realize you’re pregnant.

What follows is a description of some of the most common early symptoms of pregnancy. You should know that these symptoms may be caused by other things besides being pregnant. So the fact that you notice some of these symptoms does not necessarily mean you are pregnant. The only way to tell for sure is with a pregnancy test.

Step-By-Step Guide to Password Protect a File or Folder in Windows


Learn how easy it is to secure your files and folders with password protection and encryption.

In a perfect world, once you set up a Windows password, all is secure and safe, right? Unfortunately, that’s not the case. A Windows login password offers a very basic level of protection that mainly keeps your files safe from others who may share your computer.  But risks abound. Individuals with deeper knowledge into hacking a system can easily circumvent these simple security measures. Most versions of Windows don’t include a way to password protect files and folders, so they must be encrypted, or a third-party password protection program used to keep folders in Windows 7, 8 and 10 safe from cybercrime.  If your laptop is stolen, for example, the thief can boot up your computer from a removable device to access your files. Or, they can simply remove the hard disk, install it in another computer, and immediately gain access to all of your files and personal data.

In this article, we’ll show you how to defend your data against prying eyes by employing some relatively simple features built for the Windows platform, as well as some more advanced measures to ensure next-level protection.

Back to basics: Difference between password protection and encryption

Password protection is a lot like locking something in a safe — for instance, a highly sensitive document. To access that document, you must know the correct combination.

Knowledge is literally the key. This is why password protection is sometimes more formally referred to as a form of knowledge-based authentication. You need to know the password to enter. If you required a physical token like, say,  an actual key or a special USB drive to access our secret document, then this would be a form of possession-based authentication. If the token (or “key”) were a fingerprint or a face, you would be using inherence authentication, because the token is literally something that is inherent to you and you alone.

Encryption is sort of like taking our secret document and scrambling all the letters in that document so it is virtually unreadable by anyone not authorized to read it.

When a document is unencrypted, it’s stored in what we might call plain text. Anyone can read it. When it’s encrypted, it’s in cipher text. To see the document in its original form, the user must provide a key of sorts that unscrambled the message. In the case of file and folder encryption in Windows, the “key” is to be logged into the correct user account. Even on the same computer, the secret document may as well be gibberish to a different Windows user.

Password encryption is a third option that combines password protection and encryption. The primary benefit of using both is having two layers of security. Now our secret document is in a safe and it’s inscrutable.

If someone has the right password to unlock the file or folder, they still won’t be able to make sense of it if they’re not logged on as the authorized user.

Why password protect files?

If you share your computer with others, there is always a chance of human error — the accidental deletion of an important document, the mistaken modification of a critical file, the accidental sharing of a private folder, etc.

Sometimes you’re your own worst enemy. Sharing sensitive information over email with the wrong recipients is an unfortunate if not entirely too common source of data breaches. Last January, the Leicester City Council (in the U.K.) sent the wrong spreadsheet to some 27 companies. Sadly, that spreadsheet contains personal information belonging to a lot of people. If it can happen to them, it can happen to you.

One way to deal with these risks is to add a password to your most sensitive files, one-by-one. Sharing a computer becomes a worry-free situation after that, and sending email attachments will be less of a nail-biter, too. Yes, the requirement to enter a password every time you access that file may slow you down a bit, but the peace of mind is undoubtedly worth it. Just remember to always use strong passwords. In fact, click on over to the free Avast Random Password Generator whenever you need one, and instantly get a unique, near-uncrackable password you can use immediately.

Another way to deal with this is to use your Windows software to encrypt an entire folder. This is an easy process to implement and to use. There are also third-party tools you can use for full encryption. In this article, we’re going to lay all the tools in front of you to secure your system with the strongest defenses.

What are the different types of SSD’s


When you shop for an SSD, you’ll encounter a number of different terms such as mSATA or PCIe. So what does it all mean? Here’s a primer on what you need to know.

To attach an SSD to your system, you need to connect it using a specific interface. Common interfaces are:

  • PCIe and NVMe SSDs: PCI Express (PCIe) is normally used to connect graphics cards, network cards, or other high-performance peripherals. This interface gives you high bandwidth and low latency, making it ideal when you need blazing-fast communication between the SSD and your CPU/RAM. SSDs that use this connection type are based on the Nonvolatile Memory Express standard (NVMe), which offers higher input output per second (IOPS) and even lower latency than SATA (which we’ll get to in a moment). NVMe boasts up to 16 GBits per second of raw throughput which, thanks to multiple parallel channels, runs at up to 4,000 MB per second.
  • mSATA III, SATA III, and traditional SSDs: Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) is an older interface that was designed specifically for storage, with speeds up to 6 GBit/s or about 600 MB per second. SATA is slowly being phased out by NVME, which is significantly faster. However, older PCs or laptops with a hard disk drive would still benefit from an upgrade to a SATA-based SSD.

    SSDs are available in all sorts of storage capacity, starting at around 32 GB and ranging up to 5 TB in the consumer space. (Of course, capacity is significantly higher for enterprise grade storage, with commensurately higher prices.)

    During the short-lived era of netbooks (remember those? They were cheap, but slow and flimsy), the famous Asus Eee PC series used 1-4 GB of SSDs as storage, from which parts of the operating system were run for faster access. This was the first mainstream use of SSDs. From then on, ultrabooks and eventually desktop PCs started to adopt SSDs. Common sizes today are between 250 GB and 500 GB, which is plenty of space to hold your Windows operating system, the most common programs, and a lot of your personal files.

What is a Solid-State Drive (SSD)?


What is a solid-state drive?

For decades, data was stored primarily on mechanical hard drives. These traditional hard disk drives (HDDs) are mostly based on moving parts, like a read/write head that goes back and forth to gather data. This makes HDDs the likeliest computer hardware component to fail.

article contains:

This article contains:

  • What is a solid-state drive?
  • What are solid-state drives used for?
  • What are the different types of SSDs
  • Get the best performance from your SSD

The new solid-state drives work completely differently. They use a simple memory chip called NAND flash memory, which has no moving parts and near-instant access times.

Early experiments with SSD-like technology started in the 1950s, and by the 1970s and 1980s they were being used in high-end supercomputers. However, the technology was extremely expensive, and the storage capacity was small (2MB-20MBs) compared to the ludicrous 5-digit prices. SSD technology was used occasionally in the military and aerospace sectors, but it wouldn’t be used in consumer devices until the 1990s .

In the early 1990s, hardware innovations caused SSD prices to drop. However, the lifespan and size were still an issue: An SSD had a lifespan of roughly 10 years. It wouldn’t be until the late 2000s that SSDs would start to become more reliable and to provide decades of continuous usage at acceptable access speeds.

The memory chips on an SSD are comparable to random access memory (RAM). Instead of a magnetic platter, files are saved on a grid of NAND flash cells. Each grid (also called blocks) can store between 256 KB and 4MB. The controller of an SSD has the exact address of the blocks, so that when your PC requests a file it is (almost) instantly available. There’s no waiting for a read/write head to find the information it needs. SSD access times are thus measured in nanoseconds.